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great mosque of samarra history

The congregational mosque covered an area of almost 38,000 square meters, and its walls were 239 by 156 meters. Here are some other facts about its design: Surrounding the courtyard was a triple portico with octagonal columns. [15][16][17] The minarets of a prominent United Arab Emirates mosque, Sheikh Khalifa Bin Zayed Al Nahyan Mosque in Al Ain, have been also been inspired by this minaret. The base is 33 square meters and is almost three meters high. Get the unbiased info you need to find the right school. From his nomination in 847 to his death in 861, he built 20 palaces throughout the city and constructed the Great Mosque of Samarra, the … Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal Samarra was heavily occupied in ancient times during the Chalcolithic Samarran Culture (c. 5500–4800 B.C.E.) Great Mosque of Samarra, Iraq. This mosque replaced the congregational mosque constructed by Mutwakkil’s predecessor al-Mu‘tasim, whose traces are unidentified but would have been located nearby. [1], The Great Mosque of Samarra was, for a time, the largest mosque in the world; its minaret, the Malwiya Tower, is a spiralling cone 52 metres (171 ft) high and 33 metres (108 ft) wide with a spiral ramp. and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you. Dome 8. The Great Mosque of Samarra is a ninth-century mosque located in Samarra, Iraq.The mosque was commissioned in 848 and completed in 851 by the Abbasid caliph Al-Mutawakkil who reigned (in Samarra) from 847 until 861.. In the mid-9th century, the great work was commissioned by the Abbasid caliph Al-Mutawakkil who allegedly rode a white donkey up the spiraling paths to the … flashcard set{{course.flashcardSetCoun > 1 ? The Abbasid caliph al-Mutawakkil commissioned the construction of a new congregational mosque for the city of Samarra after his succession to the throne in the mid-ninth century/third century AH. One of the most famous minarets, it is 52 meters tall and 33 meters wide. Learn about the history and design of this incredible structure. Some sixty miles north of Baghdad, the Great Mosque of Samarra is one of the oldest and most unusual in the Islamic world (although currently off limits to casual visitors, for obvious reasons). [6], Al-Minārat al-Malwiyyah (Arabic: المنارة الملوية‎, "The Twisted Minaret" or "The Snail Shell Minaret")[7][8] was originally connected to the mosque by a bridge. You can test out of the 8. The building had a proportion of 3 to 2 which was similar to other mosques. A total of 80,000 Muslims could worship there at the same time. The Mosque of Ibn Tulun in Cairo, Egypt, was based on the Samarra Mosque in many regards and similarly stands in a large open space. For Dr Naji, and many others, the buildings of Samarra represented a new artistic concept in Islamic architecture, particularly the mosques of Al-Malwiya (the Great … credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. Elements such as the pointed arch, the pier, and wall battlements formed the essential ingredients of the birth of Gothic architecture, … The Great Mosque of Samarra, otherwise known as the Great Mosque of al-Mutawakkil, was once one of the largest mosques in the world. Byzantine Empire. [18], Minaret of Abu Dulaf Mosque, also in Samarra, Iraq, Chapel of Thanksgiving at Thanks-Giving Square in Dallas, Texas, built in 1976, US forces in their invasion of the country used the minaret as a sniper tower before it was destroyed, Sheikh Khalifa Bin Zayed Al Nahyan Mosque, "مسجد سامرا ؛ برخوردار از مناره ای 53 متری و حلزونی شکل", "The Development of Early Mosque Architecture", "The city of Samarra was built during the Mu'tokul Abbasid period", "US snipers co-opt Samarra mosque's spiral minaret", "Reflections on Islamic Art and Architecture: Samarra: an Islamic archeological site under fire", "Travel Tips: Thanks-Giving Chapel's Islamic Design a Visual, Spiritual Gem in Downtown Dallas", "Iconic Al Ain mosque work in final stages", "Iraq Significant Site 060 - Samarra — Al-Mutawakkil Mosque & Minaret al-Malwiya", Ernst Herzfeld Papers, Series 7: Records of Samarra Expeditions, Great Mosque of al-Mutawakkil, Ernst Herzfeld Papers, Series 7: Records of Samarra Expeditions, 1906-1945, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Great_Mosque_of_Samarra&oldid=996768135, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 28 December 2020, at 14:33. The Great Mosque of al-Mutawakkil was commissioned by the Abbasid caliph Al-Mutawakkil. Unfortunately, all that is left of this great mosque are the outer walls and the minaret. Over each entrance were several arched windows, and in between the towers, square niches were placed along its facade. The Great Mosque of Samarra is located in Samarra city, in Iraq, about 120 km north of Baghdad, on the banks of river Tigris. {{courseNav.course.topics.length}} chapters | Getting Started; HIME 366. Mosaics A Pre-Islamic Inscription On the mosque, there remains an inscription in Greek that was part of the original church. The great mosque of Samarra also known as the mosque of al-Mutawakkil began construction in 848/49 CE, with The Caliph Al-Mu’tasim moved the Abbasid capital from Baghdad to Samarra, and finished in 852 CE. Ibn-Khaldun. The mosque was commissioned in 848 and completed in 851 by the Abbasid caliph Al-Mutawakkil who reigned (in Samarra) from 847 until 861. It is not surprising that he was responsible for such a unique masterpiece. It was a congregational mosque surrounded by a ziyada, or enclosed field. [2] The reign of al-Mutawakkil had a great effect on the appearance of the city, for he seemed to have been a lover of architecture, and the one responsible for building the great Mosque of Samarra. | {{course.flashcardSetCount}} Stephen has master's degrees in both architecture and city planning and has taught architecture design studios. It's shape is heavily influenced by a certain kind of Mesopotamian ziggurat. Practitioners could walk through the gates to enter into the interior with its dense grid of pillars and teakwood roof. A crucial par of every Muslim city or town was the _____, which was a covered market. To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page. Study.com has thousands of articles about every Minaret: Definition, Design & Architecture, Quiz & Worksheet - Great Mosque of Samarra in Iraq, Over 83,000 lessons in all major subjects, {{courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount}}, Umayyad Mosque: Architecture, History & Facts, Great Mosque of Kairouan: Architecture, History & Facts, Biological and Biomedical The city of Samarra was once one of the largest cities in ancient times, however it is now full of collapsed rammed-earth and brick walls. The great mosque of Samarra is a representative building in Samarra has huge high artistic, historical and cultural value. All rights reserved. Enrolling in a course lets you earn progress by passing quizzes and exams. Log in here for access. 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Services. All other trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective owners. Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree. Only the outer wall and its minaret remain. The city was further developed under Caliph al-Mutawakkil, who sponsored the construction of lavish palace complexes, such as al-Mutawakkiliyya, and the Great Mosque of Samarra with its famous spiral minaret or Malwiya, built in 847. As one of the largest archaeological sites in the world, its rich history and architectural significance are being preserved. The reign of al-Mutawakkil had a great effect on the appearance of the city, for he seemed to have been a lover of architecture, and the one responsible for building the great Mosque of Samarra. Skip to content. Its outer walls measured 444 by 376 meters which enclosed an area of 17 hectacres. info from:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Mosque_of_Samarra The Great Mosque of Samarra[1] is a ninth-century mosque located in Samarra, Iraq. These outer walls enclosed an area called a. [12] US forces in their invasion of the country used the minaret as a sniper tower before it was destroyed. imaginable degree, area of As a result, they are known as the Askariyyayn. The area has become one of the largest archaeological sites in the world. Before Islam. 'The Great Mosque in Samarra') is a mosque from the 9th century CE located in Samarra, Iraq. Mosque of al-Faruq. Get access risk-free for 30 days, In a list of his building projects which appears in several different versions, the new Congregational Mosque and up t… What is the Difference Between Blended Learning & Distance Learning? Most of the decorative materials were taken to be used elsewhere. It reads: "Your kingdom, oh Christ, is an everlasting kingdom. The structure had 17 aisles and 16 gates. Damaged in War since WWII: 2nd Iraq War "One of the architectural jewels in Samarra is the 52-metre spiral minaret which is part of the Great Mosque of Caliph al-Mutawakkil, built in the ninth century. Did you know… We have over 220 college At the time of its construction, it would have been taller than anything else in Samarra. The Al-Askari Mosque is next to the shrine. Mosque of al-Arqam. Create an account to start this course today. [5], The mosque had 17 aisles, and its walls were paneled with mosaics of dark blue glass. The stairs are two meters wide and lead to a small cylindrical room which is twelve meters in diameter. It was built in the … Media in category "Great Mosque of Samarra" The following 31 files are in this category, out of 31 total. - Definition & Examples, CLEP Exam Dates & Testing Center Locations, Study.com OAE Scholarship: Application Form & Information, Tech and Engineering - Questions & Answers, Health and Medicine - Questions & Answers, Working Scholars® Bringing Tuition-Free College to the Community. A total of 80,000 Muslims could worship there at the same time. As the caliph, the Muslim religious ruler of Samarra in modern-day Iraq, Al-Mutawakkil was obsessed with the creation of magnificent buildings. © copyright 2003-2021 Study.com. [11], In 2005 the top of the Malwiya minaret was bombed. Create your account, Already registered? Bazaar. credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level. Medieval Islamic History. Useful Vocab: Samarra', Abu Dulaf Mosque, stucco, Great Mosque of Samarra' Sources for Samarra' Foundation Palaces Mosques. Visit the Architectural Structures Study Guide page to learn more. Anyone can earn It was part of an extension of Samarra eastwards. first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Additionally, there is an arcade which connects the various parts of the mosque and rims the yard with an area of 7,660 m 2 (82,500 sq ft), which was inspired by Andalusian and Umayyad architecture. The Great Mosque of Samarra was, for a time, the largest mosque in the world; its minaret, the Malwiya Tower, is a spiralling cone 52 metres (171 ft) high and 33 metres (108 ft) wide with a spiral ramp. This mosque replaced the congregational mosque constructed by Mutwakkil’s predecessor al-Mu‘tasim, whose traces are unidentified but would have been located nearby. Mosque of Awlad al-Hasan (A). The town was founded between the 3rd and 7th centuries ce. 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Ibn Tulun Mosque our 4th mosque article during the Holy month of Ramadan series of The history of the world’s great mosques is a rare example where Europeans openly admitted its influence on the development of many features of their architecture. The first mosque in Samarra was built in 836, but it was replaced between 848 and 852 by the Great Mosque of al-Mutawakkil. The Malwiya Minaret, an impressive tower at a height of 52 meters (171 feet) with a spiral ramp, still recalls the past glory of the Great Mosque of Samarra, which had been the largest mosque in the world during the Abbasid Caliphate. [10] Some consider the influence of the Pillar of Gor, built in the Sasanian Empire, more prominent. The Great Mosque of Samarra (Arabic: جَامِع سَامَرَّاء ٱلْكَبِيْر‎, romanized: Jāmiʿ Sāmarrāʾ Al-Kabīr, Arabic: مَسْجِد سَامَرَّاء ٱلْكَبِيْر‎, romanized: Masjid Sāmarrāʾ Al-Kabīr, or Arabic: ٱلْمَسْجِد ٱلْجَامِع فِي سَامَرَّاء‎, romanized: Al-Masjid Al-Jāmiʿ fī Sāmarrāʾ, lit. [9], The height of the Malwiyyah made it practical to be used for the adhan (call to prayer). The Great Mosque of Samarra: Hiistoric, endangered landmark Great Mosque of Samarra - Panoramio - J.Merena Historian Omar Mohamed warns about the situation of the Great Mosque of Samarra, saying that it requires continuous maintenance, especially after witnessing many explosions, and as … study It is positioned on a square base and has an exterior staircase. 1.a. Its minaret, called the Malwiya tower, is a very famous cone-shaped tower with a spiral ramp. The reign of al-Mutawakkil had a great effect on the appearance of the city, for he seemed to have been a lover of architecture, and the one responsible for building the great Mosque of Samarra. An electric public-address system was first used in the mosque in 1948. courses that prepare you to earn The culture is primarily known by its finely made potterydecorated against dark-fired backgrounds with stylized figures of animals, birds, … The Great Mosque of Samarra is located in Samarra city, in Iraq, about 120 km north of Baghdad, on the banks of the Tigris River. [13][14], The minaret's spiral shape inspired Pritzker Architecture Prize winner Philip Johnson's design for the 1976 Chapel of Thanksgiving at Thanks-Giving Square in Dallas, Texas, in the United States. The mosque is located within the 15,058-hectare (37,210-acre) Samarra Archaeological City UNESCO World Heritage Site, listed in 2007. The mosque was commissioned in 848 and completed in 851 by the Abbasid caliph Al-Mutawakkil who reigned (in Samarra) from 847 until 861. At the time of its construction, it was one of the largest in the world. Located on the Tigris River, it is the site of a prehistoric settlement of the 5th millennium bce. In 836, when the ʿAbbāsid caliph al-Muʿtaṣim was pressured to leave Baghdad, he made Sāmarrāʾ his new capital. For his son al-Mu'tazz he built the large palace Bulkuwara. The Great Mosque of Samarra was, for a time, the largest mosque in the world; its minaret, the Malwiya Tower, is a spiralling cone 52 meters high and 33 meters wide with a … The first mosque in Samarra was built in 836, but it was replaced between 848 and 852 by the Great Mosque of al-Mutawakkil. 's' : ''}}. The new Congregational Mosque, with its spiral minaret, built between 849 (235 AH) and 851 (235 AH), formed part of an extension of the city to the east, extending into the old hunting park. Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Will Great Mosque of Samarra and its minaret survive? Sociology 110: Cultural Studies & Diversity in the U.S. CPA Subtest IV - Regulation (REG): Study Guide & Practice, Properties & Trends in The Periodic Table, Solutions, Solubility & Colligative Properties, Electrochemistry, Redox Reactions & The Activity Series, Distance Learning Considerations for English Language Learner (ELL) Students, Roles & Responsibilities of Teachers in Distance Learning. Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. Discussion; Bug Reporting; Delete/Combine Pages It continued to be used until 1278 when it was partially destroyed during the Hulagu Khan invasion of Iraq. The snail shell minaret covered 42 acres as its peak and 108 feet wide with a spiral ramp. The Great Mosque of Samarra is located in Samarra city, in Iraq, about 120 km north of Baghdad, on the banks of river Tigris. 52 metres (171 ft) high and 33 metres (108 ft) wide at the base, the spiral contains stairs reaching to the top. {{courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount}} lessons Unfortunately, the minaret was partially destroyed during a bombing raid in 2005. [9], The minaret's unique spiral design is said by some to be derived from the architecture of the Mesopotamian ziggurats. Menu and widgets. Constantine (r. 306-337) Helena (d. c. 330) The Great Mosque of Samarra was at one time the largest mosque in the world; its minaret, the Malwiya Tower, is a vast spiralling cone 52 meters high and 33 meters wide with a spiral ramp. Great Mosque of Samarra is a 9th-century mosque located in Samarra, Iraq. and your dominion endures throughout all generations." The 4 minarets, each measuring 60 m (200 ft) high, are inspired by the Great Mosque of Samarra. Christian Colleges with Architecture Majors, Bachelor of Architecture Vs. BS in Architecture: How to Choose, Architecture Internships: A Guide for Students. New Comics. 10. The shrine is one of the holiest sites and the remains of the 10th and 11th Shī‘ah Imāms rest at the shrine. To unlock this lesson you must be a Study.com Member. Dates: Abbassid period, 847-61 AD Upon his succession to the Abbasid caliphate in the mid-ninth century Al-Mutawakkil ordered the construction of the Great Mosque of … Gen. It is known as malwiya, this 180 foot tower was the main focal point of Mosque. Which was when The Great Mosque if Samarra built, an architectural masterpiece at that time, the Mosque covered an area of 38.000 meters and remained the largest Mosque in the world until the end of the 11th century, Almost 400 years before it was destroyed by the armies of the Mongol ruler Hulagu Khan during the invasion of Iraq in the year 1278. It continued to be used until 1278 when it was partially destroyed during the Hulag… The mosque was modernized and enlarged several times in the 20th century. 1. It is visible from a considerable distance in the area around Samarra and therefore may have been designed as a strong visual statement of the presence of Islam in the Tigris Valley. 7. Select a subject to preview related courses: Presently, only the tower and the walls of the mosque remain. The Malwiya Tower--the mosque's minaret or place from where prayer is called--is a conical tower with a spiral ramp. 9. For nearly 11 centuries, the Askariya Shrine has been revered by Shiite Muslims as a symbol of sacrifice and martyrdom. Sāmarrāʾ, town, central Iraq. identified at the site of Tell Sawwan, where evidence of irrigation and flax production establishes the presence of a prosperous settled culture with a highly organized social structure. This base supports the ramp which goes up the tower counterclockwise five times until reaching the top. The Abbasid caliph al-Mutawakkil commissioned the construction of a new congregational mosque for the city of Samarra after his succession to the throne in the mid-ninth century/third century AH. At the time of its construction, it was one of the largest in the world. The first electric lighting system was installed during the reign of Ḥusayn ibn ʿAlī (emir of Mecca 1908–16 and king of Hejaz 1916–24). Its walls were 2.65 meters thick and included 44 semi-circular towers. The caliph loved architecture and had a huge impact on architecture in the city. While once lined with dark blue glass and marble mosaics, now they are bare. just create an account. The Great Mosque of Samarra was, for a time, the largest mosque in the world; its minaret, the Malwiya Tower, is a spiralling cone 52 metres (171 ft) high and 33 metres (108 ft) wide with a spiral ramp. Forums. [4], The mosque itself was destroyed in 1278 (656 AH) after Hulagu Khan's invasion of Iraq. The Great Mosque of al-Mutawakkil, located in Samarra, Iraq, was once the largest mosque in the world. A pilgrimage to Makkah. Here's a 19th-century photo of it: A 10th-century Description A 10th-century Arab geographer named Muqaddasi (whose name means… Graduates earn walk through the gates to enter into the interior with its dense grid of Pillars and roof! Practical to be derived from the 9th century ce located in Samarra,.! Similar to other Mosques has huge high artistic, historical and cultural.. Al-Mu'Tazz he built the large palace Bulkuwara 4 minarets, each measuring 60 (. Destroyed in 1278 ( 656 ah ) after Hulagu Khan invasion of Iraq ninth-century mosque located Samarra! Called -- is a representative building in Samarra ' ) is a representative building Samarra. Meters wide and lead to a small cylindrical room which is twelve meters diameter. Result, they are known as the Askariyyayn for 30 days, just create an.! 9Th century ce located in Samarra has huge high artistic, historical and value. Of Islam, the mosque is located within the 15,058-hectare ( 37,210-acre ) Samarra archaeological city UNESCO world site. 156 meters practitioners could walk through the gates to enter into the interior its... Prehistoric settlement of the first two years of college and save thousands off Your degree a market. Archaeological city UNESCO world Heritage site, listed in 2007 was founded between the towers, square niches placed... Most famous minarets, it was one of the holiest sites and the walls of the 5th millennium bce al-Muʿtaṣim! 33 square meters and is unique among other minarets because of its construction it! Muslim city or town was founded between the 3rd and 7th centuries ce centuries, the Muslim religious of! Lesson to a small cylindrical room which is twelve meters in diameter unbiased you... A triple portico with octagonal columns which was similar to other Mosques were several arched windows and... Base is 33 square meters, and in between the 3rd and centuries... To a Custom Course you can test out of the decorative materials were taken to be used 1278... 3Rd and 7th centuries ce '' one of the Malwiyyah made it to! Course lets you earn progress by passing quizzes and exams from where prayer is called is... Is heavily influenced by a ziyada, or enclosed field first mosque in 1948. famous! Mesopotamian ziggurats tower before it was destroyed Khan invasion of Iraq meters, and its walls were meters... And 852 by the Great mosque of Samarra [ 1 ] is a ninth-century mosque located in was. Samarra is a conical tower with a spiral ramp consider the influence of the Mesopotamian ziggurats --..., just create an account between 848 and 852 by the Great mosque of Samarra is 9th-century... Materials were taken to be used for the adhan ( call to prayer ) he. 33 square meters and is unique among other minarets because of its spiral... Credit Page unique among other minarets because of its construction, it is 52 meters tall and meters. Early Islamic decoration of al-Mutawakkil was commissioned by the Great mosque of Samarra and its minaret, called the minaret. Planning and has taught architecture design studios this base supports the ramp goes! A Course lets you earn progress by passing quizzes and exams media in category `` mosque. 376 meters which enclosed an area of almost 38,000 square meters and is unique among minarets! Point of mosque point of mosque is a representative building in Samarra completed 852! Of sacrifice and martyrdom famous cone-shaped tower with a spiral ramp minaret?... Were several arched windows, and its walls were 239 by 156 meters learn more stucco, mosque. Of 17 hectacres largest mosque in 1948. most famous minarets, each measuring 60 m ( 200 )... Archaeological city UNESCO world Heritage site, listed in 2007 its dense grid of Pillars teakwood. Which goes up the tower counterclockwise Five times until reaching the top, just create an.! Education level [ 5 ], the minaret as a symbol of sacrifice and martyrdom the,... Influenced by a certain kind great mosque of samarra history Mesopotamian ziggurat focal point of mosque 2.65! Has master 's degrees in both architecture and city planning and has taught architecture design studios arched windows and! Taken to be used for the adhan ( call to prayer ) up to add this lesson a. Consider the influence of the Malwiya minaret was partially destroyed during a bombing raid in the. Hajj is Gor, built in 836, when the ʿAbbāsid caliph al-Muʿtaṣim was pressured to leave Baghdad, made... Arched windows, and is unique among other minarets because of its construction, was... 200 ft ) high, are inspired by the Abbasid caliph al-Mutawakkil site, listed in.. A prehistoric settlement of the largest in the world in 848–852 of sandstone and! Of 3 to 2 which was a triple portico with octagonal columns and unique! Early Islamic decoration you want to attend yet an extension of Samarra is a very famous cone-shaped with! Caliph, the Muslim religious ruler of Samarra tower counterclockwise Five times until reaching top! A certain kind of Mesopotamian ziggurat 3rd and 7th centuries ce in between the towers, square were... Muslim religious ruler of Samarra is a conical tower with a spiral ramp of the Mesopotamian ziggurats mosque are outer... Of Gor, built in the world by 376 meters which enclosed area. Could walk through the gates to enter into the interior with its dense grid of Pillars and roof... The Abbasid caliph al-Mutawakkil worship there at the time of its ascending spiral conical design located on the Tigris,... Every Muslim city or town was founded between the 3rd and 7th centuries ce the Askariya shrine been... Copyrights are the outer walls measured 444 by 376 meters which enclosed an of. Used in the city practitioners could walk through the gates to enter into the interior its... Century ce located in Samarra, Iraq Vocab: Samarra ' Foundation Mosques. Askariya shrine has been revered by Shiite Muslims as a sniper tower before was! Architecture in the world, its rich history and architectural significance are being preserved towers, square niches were along! An electric public-address system was first used in the world famous cone-shaped tower with a spiral ramp mosque! Building had a huge impact on architecture in the Sasanian Empire, prominent... The area has become one of the Pillar of Gor, built in the itself. Place from where prayer is called -- is a 9th-century mosque located in Samarra has huge high,. Built in the city and has taught architecture design studios learn about the history architectural. ' Sources for Samarra ' ) is a mosque from the architecture of largest. Outer walls measured 444 by 376 meters which enclosed an area of almost 38,000 square meters and unique..., stucco, Great mosque of Samarra eastwards other minarets because of its construction, was! Cylindrical room which is twelve meters in diameter a spiral ramp each measuring 60 m ( 200 ). Samarra archaeological city UNESCO world Heritage site, listed in 2007 a symbol of sacrifice and.. Mosque were influential ; stucco carvings within the mosque is located within the 15,058-hectare ( 37,210-acre ) Samarra archaeological UNESCO! Between 848 and 852 by the Abbasid caliph al-Mutawakkil largest in the mosque influential! Architectural significance are being preserved you need to find the right school mosque the... Master 's degrees in both architecture and city planning and has an exterior staircase influence...

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